Name: I Gusti Ngurah Thierry
Punctuation is used to create sense, clarity and stress in sentences.
You use punctuation marks to structure and organise your writing. The most common of these are the period (or full stop in British English), the comma, the exclamation mark, the question mark, the colon and semi-colon, the quote, the apostrophe, the hyphen and dash, and parentheses and brackets. Capital letters are also used to help us organise meaning and to structure the sense of our writing.
You can quickly see why punctuation is important if you try and read this sentence which has no punctuation at all:
perhaps you dont always need to use commas periods colons etc to make sentences clear when i am in a hurry tired cold lazy or angry i sometimes leave out punctuation marks grammar is stupid i can write without it and dont need it my uncle Harry once said he was not very clever and i never understood a word he wrote to me i think ill learn some punctuation not too much enough to write to Uncle Harry he needs some help
Now let's see if punctuating it makes a difference!
Perhaps you don't always need to use commas, periods, colons etc. to make sentences clear. When I am in a hurry, tired, cold, lazy, or angry I sometimes leave out punctuation marks.
"Grammar is stupid! I can write without it and don't need it." my uncle Harry once said. He was not very clever and I never understood a word he wrote to me. I think I'll learn some punctuation - not too much, enough to write to Uncle Harry. He needs some help!
Use the punctuation section to learn how to make your English clearer and better organised.
There are some general rules which you can apply when using the comma.
However, you will find that in English there are many other ways to use the comma to add to the meaning of a sentence or to emphasise an item, point or meaning.
Although we are often taught that commas are used to help us add 'breathing spaces' to sentences they are, in fact, more accurately used to organise blocks of thought or logical groupings. Most people will now use commas to ensure that meaning is clear and, despite grammatical rules, will drop the comma if their meaning is retained in the sentence.
A. Using the comma to separate phrases, words, or clauses in lists
1. a series of phrases
- On my birthday I went to the cinema, ate dinner in a restaurant,and went dancing.
2. a series of nouns
- The meal consisted of soup, fish, chicken, dessert and coffee.
3. a series of adjectives
- She was young, beautiful, kind, and intelligent.
Note: if an adjective is modifying another adjective you do not separate them with a comma - e.g. She wore a bright red shirt.
4. a series of verbs
- Tony ran towards me, fell, yelled, and fainted.
5. a series of clauses
- The car smashed into the wall, flipped onto its roof, slid along the road, and finally stopped against a tree.
The 'Period', 'Full Stop' or 'Point'
he period (known as a full stop in British English) is probably the simplest of the punctuation marks to use.
You use it like a knife to cut the sentences to the required length. Generally, you can break up the sentences using the full stop at the end of a logical and complete thought that looks and sounds right to you. Use the full stop
1. to mark the end of a sentence which is not a question or an exclamation.
- Rome is the capital of Italy.
- I was born in Australia and now live in Indonesia.
- The Dalai Lama is the spiritual leader of the Tibetan people.
2. to indicate an abbreviation
- I will be in between 6 a.m. and 7 p.m.
Note: Dr and Mr and Mrs and Ms do not take a full stop nor do most abbreviations taken from the first capital letters such as MA Phd CNN
3. special case - three dots
Often you will see a sentence concluding with three dots. This indicates that only part of the sentence or text has been quoted or that it is being left up to the reader to complete the rest of the sentence.
- The Lord's Prayer begins, 'Our Father which are in Heaven...'
3. fullstop after a single word
Sometimes a single word can form the sentence. In this case you place a fullstop after the word as you would in any other sentence.
The Question Mark
Use the question mark:
1. At the end of all direct questions
- What is your name?
- Do you speak Italian?
- You're Spanish, aren't you?
The Exclamation Mark
The exclamation mark is used to express exasperation,astonishment or surprise or to emphasise a comment or short, sharp phrase.
- Help! Help!
- That's unbelievable!
- Get out!
The colon expands on the sentence that precedes it.
- There are many reasons for poor written communication: lack of planning, poor grammar, misuse of punctuation marks and insufficient vocabulary.
The apostrophe probaly causes more grief than any of the other punctuation marks put together!
The problem nearly always seems to stem from users not understanding that the apostrophe has two very different (and very important) uses in English.
· to show possession and ownership - e.g. Jack's car. Mary's father.
· to indicate a contraction - he's (he is), we're (we are), they're (they are)
These two examples show the apostrophe being used for possession (sentence 1) and contraction (sentence 2)
- Colombia's coffee exports have risen steadily over the past decade.
- Colombia's one of the main coffee producing countries in the world.