Resume B.Inggris= PHRASES

Name: I Gusti Ngurah Thierry

NIM: 12410100096

Class: P3


PHRASES

A phrase is a group of related words that lacks both a subject and a predicate. Because it a subject and a predicate it cannot act as a sentence.
A phrase typically functions as a single part of speech in a sentence (e.g., noun, adiecli e. Adverb). 
There are four types of phrases:
1.    Prepositional phrases, which begin with a preposition and include the object of the preposition.
2.    Participial phrases, which begin with the participle and include the object of the participle or other words that are connected to the noun by the participle.
3.    Gerund phrases, which begin with the gerund and include the object of the gerund or other words that are acting as the complete subject or complete object.
4.    Infinitive phrases, which begin with an infinitive and include the object of the infinitive or other words that are acting as part of the phrase.


1. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES
The prepositional phrase includes the preposition and the object of the preposition as well
as any modifiers related to either.
[In the following examples, the preposition is bold and the prepositional phrase is underlined.]
• The flying saucer appeared above the lake before it disappeared into space.
•ABOVE is not an adverb because it has an object to complete its meaning;
Therefore, ABOVE is a preposition and the entire phrase is an adverb phrase.


2. PARTICIPAL PHRASES
The participial phrase includes the participle and the object of the participle or any words
Modified by or related to the participle.
[Irt the following examples, the participle is bold and the participial phrase is underlined.]
• The car sliding out of control toward building is going to hit the window.
•SLIDING modifies the CAR. The verb is IS GOING.
• Cameron spotted his brother throwing rocksat the passing cars.
•THROWING is not a verb in this sentence. It describes the brother. Without an
auxiliary verb, it cannot function as a verb. 

  3. GERUND PHRASE
The gerund phrase includes the gerund and the object of the gerund or any modifiers related to the gerund.
[In the following examples, the gerund is bold and the gerund phrase is underlined.]
• Flying above the lake at this time of night seems a little dangerous.
          FLYING is the subject of the sentence. A subject is a noun. A form of the verb ending in ING and used as a noun is a gerund. FLYING is a gerund.

4. INFINITIVE PHRASE
The infinitive phrase includes the infinitive and the object of the infinitive or any modifiers related to the infinitive.
[In the following examples, the infinitive is bold and the infinitive phrase is underlined.]
            • Even in New York, fans did not manage to buy the hype.
TO BUY is the direct object of the verb DID MANAGE. THE HYPE is the object of the infinitive.
• The seemingly simple decision to appoint a Democrat caused controversy.
TO APPOINT is an adjective modifying DECISION. A DEMOCRAT is the object of the infinitive.

Sumber: 
1.      Understanding and Using English grammar (the third edition) by Betty Schrampfer Azar
2.      Cliffs TOEFL Preparation Guide by Michael A. Pyle, M. A. and Mary Ellen Munoz Page, M. A.

Refferal:
English One, Reading Text book STIKOM SURABAYA, " Perpustakaan, Nomor Induk Buku 25551. Rak 425 PUS E
 

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